SW4STM32 and SW4Linux fully supports the STM32MP1 asymmetric multicore Cortex/A7+M4 MPUs

   With System Workbench for Linux, Embedded Linux on the STM32MP1 family of MPUs from ST was never as simple to build and maintain, even for newcomers in the Linux world.
And, if you install System Workbench for Linux in System Workbench for STM32 you can seamlessly develop and debug asymmetric applications running partly on Linux, partly on the Cortex-M4.
You can get more information from the ac6-tools website and download two short videos (registration required) highlighting:

System Workbench for STM32

No longer able to program my NUCLEO-H743ZI

I guess it’s not impossible for your four cables to be bad, but it is unlikely; if they work with some other peripheral then it’s pretty much looking like your NUCLEO...

Looking at the data sheet for your board, it doesn’t appear there are jumpers that could be causing this.

I would guess that the two most likely things are either you cracked the tracks on the USB connector on the NUCLEO (just physical wear and tear) _or_ you zapped it somehow (ESD)
The software wouldn’t just die, and anyway as I mentioned the micro that does the ST-Link isn’t the STM32H743 that you are programming.

Can’t do much about ESD damage but the cracked tracks would be discoverable and repairable if you have a multimeter and a fine soldering iron... but personally I’d triple check maybe with a fifth cable and another computer (eg: linux box with lsusb) that you’re sure it’s not something simple before going at it with the tools...